Title

51ème Congrès
de la Société des Anglicistes de l'Enseignement Supérieur
Paris, 20 - 22 mai 2011

Atelier 16 - Récit de voyage (SELVA) et Anglorient - Résumés
Mardi, 30 Novembre 2010 13:04

 

Otilia Bardet (Rennes 1) - Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

« L'Afrique de V. S. Naipaul : la dialectique du voyage dans Half a Life et The Masque of Africa »

La communication se penchera sur le dernier ouvrage publié par l'auteur, The Masque of Africa (2010) et sur l'un de ses romans les plus récents, Half a Life (2001). Elle se propose d'analyser la vision qui est donnée de l'Afrique et ainsi de confronter le point de vue du voyageur (The Masque of Africa) à celui du résident étranger (Half a Life).

 

Laurence Chamlou (Reims) - Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

« The Enchanteress of Florence, de Salman Rushdie, ou la rencontre fabuleuse de l'Orient et de l'Occident »

L'article se propose d'étudier le dialogue que Salman Rushdie fait met en scène entre l'Orient et l'Occident. L'analyse de son langage mènera aux effets de miroirs dans sa narration. Si les personnages sont faits de contrastes, ils entrent également dans un échange culturel qui donne une large place aux digressions. Salman Rushdie mêle l'histoire, la fable et le conte dans une rencontre de l'Orient et de l'Occident.

 

Jaine Chemmachéry (Rennes 2) -  Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

« Les nouvelles sur l'empire de Rudyard Kipling et de Somerset Maugham ou l'expression d'une ambivalence face aux discours orientaliste et exotique »

Les nouvelles sur l'empire de Kipling et de Maugham sont indéniablement imprégnées de l'idéologie impérialiste. Dans La littérature des Lointains – Histoire de l'exotisme européen au XXe siècle (Paris : Honoré Champion, 1998), Jean-Marc Moura rappelle la mise en rapport parfois rapide dont font l'objet écriture coloniale et écriture exotique. Mais les écrits concernés ne sont pas le lieu d'émergence d'un discours exotique sur l'autre. Kipling, dans ses nouvelles, ne semble pas faire de l'Inde une construction exotique. Ou lorsqu'elle l'est, la voix narrative la présente ironiquement comme telle : « India, as everyone knows, is divided equally between jungle, tigers, cobras, cholera, and sepoys » (« Yoked with an Unbeliever », Plain Tales From the Hills. 1888. Oxford University Press, 1987, p. 30). Loin d'être un espace absolument menaçant ou séduisant, l'Inde est pourtant associée au surnaturel chez Kipling, ce qui rappelle l'une des caractéristiques de l'Orient dans le discours orientaliste, à savoir le lien particulier que ce dernier entretient avec le merveilleux, le mystique (Selon Said, « Orientalism can be discussed and analyzed as the corporate institution for dealing with the Orient – dealing with it by making statements about it, authorizing views of it, describing it by teaching it, settling it, ruling over it: in short, Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient. », Orientalism. 1978. New York: Vintage Books, 1979, p. 3.) Dans les nouvelles, l' « uncanny » signale aussi bien l'étrangeté « fascinante » de l'Inde pour le colonisateur que l'incapacité de ce dernier à appréhender le monde indien. Ainsi, ce même discours, souvent lu comme marque de l'affirmation d'une supériorité européenne sur l'Orient, se fait simultanément le vecteur d'une réflexion sur le décentrement du savoir européen. Quant aux nouvelles de Somerset Maugham, elles décrivent des paysages d'Asie du sud-est caractérisés par une dimension sensuelle, parfois inquiétante. L'écriture de Maugham se rapproche davantage de ce que l'on entend par discours orientaliste. Toutefois, la voix narrative laisse entendre, à l'occasion d'autres énoncés, une voix assumant une posture clairement anti-exotique.

L'ambivalence de la posture des auteurs face à l'orientalisme et à l'exotisme sera mise en rapport avec l'ambivalence plus générale qui marque ces récits, lieu d'un tiraillement entre affirmation/validation d'une modernité idéologique dont la colonisation participe et questionnement de cette même modernité par le biais de l'écriture.

 

Anne-Valérie Dulac (Créteil) -  Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

« Les effets "matériels" de l'optique arabe sur la constitution des images élisabéthaines »

Cette communication portera sur les effets "matériels" de l'optique arabe sur la constitution des images élisabéthaines (pour ce qui est en particulier du traitement de la lumière et de la transparence). Elle se penchera pour cela sur les aquarelles de John White, ramenées des premiers voyages coloniaux en Virginie. Le regroupement voyage/optique fait donc tout à fait sens dans cette réflexion.

 

Claire Larsonneur (Paris 8) -  Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

« La figure du Japon chez David Mitchell »

Convoquant à la fois les codes du récit de voyage, du roman d'apprentissage et de la science-fiction, David Mitchell construit depuis la fin des années 90 une œuvre d'une grande richesse. Le Japon, pays où il a résidé plusieurs années, est une source d'inspiration que l'on retrouve dans tous ses ouvrages, plus particulièrement Number9Dream ainsi que son dernier opus The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet.

 

Sandhya Patel (Clermont Ferrand 2) -  Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

"James Cook's and Joseph Banks Island Encounters: The Endeavour Voyage, 1768-1771"

The actual moment of colonial encounter whether it be first contact or during successive engagements has often been conceptualised within postcolonial paradigms of Self and Other. For example, as concerns late 18th century contexts (the timeframe that I am particularly interested in), I myself have argued that the writing up of colonial contact operates within parameters of strategic formation as Edward Saïd argued where knowledge is accumulated in cyclical fashion. In this case, Self and Other became discursive tools in the process and in order that latent and manifest discourses of alterity be perpetuated.

I would like to examine theoretical perspectives on Self and Other and on the conceptualisation of encounter in terms different to those referred to above. Theories of intersubjectivity could provide pertinent standpoints which may also account for the rituals of encounter and their representations.

My principal contention in this paper will be that these types of colonial encounters may possibly be understood as allowing for what may be termed ethical relationships. During his first voyage around the world (1768-1771), James Cook wrote a log and a journal and Joseph Banks, gentleman botanist aboard also wrote a detailed journal. I would like to argue that a comparison of Cook's and Banks' accounts attest to the operation of the above intersubjective processes and that Banks' text, more so than Cook's, reveals attempts at ethical relations which may correspond to Carey's anti-imperial strain and to Fabian's coevalness. Banks' complicity, defined by Crossley as ...openness to the Other without knowing the Other (24) is identifiable by juxtaposing both men's writing strategies during the three stages of encounter namely pre-encounter, encounter proper and post encounter.

 

Stéphanie Prévost (Tours) -  Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

"New perspectives on Late-Victorian Britain and the Eastern Question, or How the Eastern Question Affected British Politics after 1880"

Back in the 1920s, French historian Gabriel Monod considered that the Eastern Question was 'the key problem of European politics (Monod, « Préface », in : Edouard Driault, La Question d'Orient depuis ses origines jusqu'à la paix de Sèvres, Paris : Librairie Félix Alcan [1898] 1921, p. v). It is no surprise, as a result, that the Eastern Question, which refers to 'the question of the fate of Turkey' (Anon., Catechism of the Eastern Question, Reprinted from the 'Pall Mall Gazette', London: Edward Stanford, 1877, p.1) as decided by the Concert of Europe between Russia's victory over the Sultan's troops in 1774 and the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, should have triggered numerous studies over the years. It actually still does today, although not so much in France, where the Eastern Question is now receiving scant attention. Interestingly, the historiography of the Eastern Question has been dominated by diplomatic and geopolitical studies, so much so that attempts at linking it with the history of one of the members of the Concert of Europe – Britain included – have been relatively limited. There are exceptions of course, even in the case in Britain, as is shown by Gladstone and the Bulgarian Agitation 1876, a pioneering work Richard T. Shannon published in 1963. There, Shannon argued that the 'Bulgarian atrocities' agitation in Britain, i.e. protests organised in Britain in response to acts of violence committed by Turkish irregulars against Bulgarian Christians in the spring of 1876, was wholly spontaneous and that the Eastern Question had little impact on Britain after the 'Bulgarian atrocities' agitation had cooled down and none at all after Disraeli stepped down in 1880. This landmark reference inspired many historians who researched the impact of the Eastern Question in late Victorian Britain and is still all the more relevant as its conclusions remained utterly undisputed until 2005, when Rebecca Gill suggested the spontaneity of the Bulgarian agitation should be questioned ('Calculating Compassion in War: The "New Humanitarian" Ethos in Britain (1870-1918)', PhD, Manchester University, 2005, p. 10 et pp. 66-7).

After briefly reviewing the historiography of the Eastern Question, this paper will seek to explain why I decided to work on the reception of the Eastern Question in Britain in between 1875 and 1898 for my doctoral thesis, why I finally contested Shannon's main conclusions (and under what evidence), and what main new perspectives I have tried to highlight.

 

Robert Sayre (Marne la Vallée) -  Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

"Narratives of encounter in the Trans-Mississippi West before 1800: ndians, the Fur Trade, and the Northwest Passage"

Before the mid-18th century most accounts of travel into “Indian territory” - that is, lands still largely inhabited and controlled by Native Americans - involved areas east of the Mississippi River, at least as far as the northern half of the continent was concerned. Starting in the 16th century there were Spanish accounts - especially of the expeditions by Cabeza de Vaca, Coronado and De Soto - of travel into areas of present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, etc. But in the 17th and early 18th-century accounts authored by French and Anglo-American explorers, travel generally did not go far beyond the banks of the Mississippi. Starting in the 1760s, however, and connected mainly with the fur trade and the search for the Northwest Passage, several narratives cover northern trans-Mississippi territories. My talk will deal with the encounter with Indians in several of these accounts of the “far west” - those of Jonathan Carver, Alexander Henry, Alexander Mackenzie and Jean-Baptiste Trudeau. Carver travelled in the 1760s, and Henry in the 70s, onto the northern Plains - the latter penetrating considerably further west. Mackenzie, in his famous explorations, reached the arctic sea in 1789, and then the northwest Pacific coast in 1793. Trudeau travelled on the Missouri River, as far as its upper portions, as part of his fur-trading activities in 1794-96. I will make some reference to other relevant texts, and will attempt to bring out both the common elements and the diversity of experience and response that appear in these narratives.

 

Suhasini Vincent (Paris 2) -  Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots des spammeurs, vous devez activer Javascript pour la voir.

"Journey Undercurrents in Salman Rushdie's Haroun and the Sea of Stories and Luka and the Fire of Life"

In Rushdie's Haroun and the Sea of Stories and Luka and the Fire of Life, the sibling-child protagonists share the common 'journey' motif of restoring their father's lost gift of the gab. Rushdie's liquid tapestries reveal how hungry fish consume old stories, regurgitate them and produce new tales from old fragments. The child narrator in Haroun and the Sea of Stories muses - "no story comes from nowhere; new stories are born from the old – it is the new combinations that make them new" (86). In Rushdie's fictional sea, the story wave-chain is held intact by the rejuvenation, reweaving, and recasting of various story undercurrents. Similarly through a magical realist twist of events, Luka in his quest for the fire of life can propel and "turn back Time itself, make it flow the wrong way and make us young again" (Luka 10) during the literary journey. Conceived to be preserved in fluid form, the streams of stories are in the ideal malleable state where they can 'change', become new 'avatars' and 'cyber-matrix' versions of themselves, join with other 'traditional' streams and swell into 'new' stories. This paper shall thus explore how through the 'journey' motif, Rushdie emphasises the value of imaginative truth, the force it wields, the necessity of favouring 'individualistic storytelling' as opposed to 'collective myth-making', and the power of the narrative to triumph over the forces that suppress and silence creative imagination.

 

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